To undo recent changes, from normal mode use the undo command:
u: undo last change (can be repeated to undo preceding commands)
Ctrl-r: Redo changes which were undone (undo the undos). Compare to
.to repeat a previous change, at the current cursor position. Ctrl-r (hold down Ctrl and press
r) will redo a previously undone change, wherever the change occurred.
A related command is:
U: return the last line which was modified to its original state (reverse all changes in last modified line)
U is not actually a true “undo” command as it does not actually navigate undo history like
Ctrl-r. This means that (somewhat confusingly)
U is itself undo-able with
u; it creates a new change to reverse previous changes.
U is seldom useful in practice, but is often accidentally pressed instead of
u, so it is good to know about.